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The Middle Kingdom (2060–1802 BC) is the period from the end of the First Intermediate Period to the beginning of the Second Intermediate Period.

In addition to the Twelfth Dynasty, some scholars include the Eleventh, Thirteenth and Fourteenth Dynasties in the Middle Kingdom.

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The Middle Kingdom can be noted for the expansion of trade outside of the kingdom that occurred during this time.

This opening of trade eventually led to the downfall of the Middle Kingdom, induced by an invasion from the Hyksos.

The kings of the 7th and 8th Dynasties, who represented the successors of the 6th Dynasty, tried to hold onto some power in Memphis but owed much of it to powerful nomarchs.

After 20 to 45 years, they were overthrown by a new line of pharaohs based in Herakleopolis Magna.

The first imprinted papyri originate from Khufu's reign, which may have made ancient Greek authors believe that Khufu wrote books in attempt to praise the gods. Some scholars believe he created the Great Sphinx of Giza as a monument for his deceased father. However, this pyramid is no longer intact as it is believed the Romans recycled the materials it was made from. Ancient Greek authors describe Khafra as likewise cruel as Khufu.

The First Intermediate Period (2181–2060 BC) is a period of disarray and chaos between the end of the Old Kingdom and the advent of the Middle Kingdom.

The second part of the Eleventh Dynasty is considered to be part of the Middle Kingdom of Egypt.

The Second Intermediate Period (1802–1550 BC) is a period of disarray between the end of the Middle Kingdom, and the start of the New Kingdom.

This, however, is disproved by New Kingdom graffiti that praise king Snofru, not Huni. Reigned 48 years, giving him enough time to build the Meidum Pyramid, the Bent Pyramid and the Red Pyramid.

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