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The external genitalia of known 46, XX/46, XY true hermaphrodites are usually either ambiguous or sufficiently masculinized to suggest to attending physicians that the sex of rearing should be male.

A female sex of rearing was chosen in only three of 13 cases in one series.

Thus, almost all recognized whole-body chimeras are heterosexual, although one might expect an equal number of isosexual chimeras (ascertainment bias).

More extensive reviews are published elsewhere is usually credited with the first scientific consideration of true hermaphroditism.

By the beginning of the modern cytogenetic era (circa 1958), approximately 200 true hermaphrodites had been documented.

Both groups, surprisingly at the time, reported the karyotype to be 46, XX.

By 1977, cytogenetic studies had been performed on at least 240 live-born cases that fulfilled traditional histologic criteria of hermaphroditism.46, XX/46, XY True hermaphroditism of the type 46, XX/46, XY is rarer than 46, XX true hermaphroditism, but about as common as the 46, XY type.

Additional studies, however, are necessary to confirm this hypothesis.

In aggregate, the right gonad is much more likely to contain testicular tissue than the left – a characteristic that 46, XX/46, XY true hermaphrodites share with other true hermaphrodites.

If additional tissues are studied, the minority cell line is most likely to be detected in gonadal fibroblasts and relatively less likely to be detected in skin fibroblasts.

In addition, the proportion of 46, XY cells in lymphocytes bears no ostensible relationship to gonadal status.

Chimerism connotes the presence in a single individual of cells derived from different zygotes.

The phenomenon is proved by detection of two populations of cells, usually erythrocytes with different blood types, in a single individual.

That is, a relatively high proportion of 46, XY cells in lymphocytes does not necessarily indicate that the gonadal tissue is predominantly testicular, nor, conversely, does a high proportion of 46, XX cells indicate that gonadal tissue is predominantly ovarian.

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