Number of states mandating insurance consolidating loans direct loans

Furthermore, state regulatory policies exhibit little variance across time, and this makes it more difficult to reach definitive conclu­sions about the causal impact of mandates.Finally, the Congressional Budget Office (CBO) released a study that examines how insurance prices affect health care coverage in the non-group mar­ket.[6] The CBO authors did not have direct access to state premium data, but they were able to impute premiums by examining the strength of various state community rating regulations.

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Golden Rule insurance provided 2003 insurance premium data from a series of random ZIP codes in 37 states, and e Health Insurance.com, a major Internet broker of health insurance, provided pre­mium data from insurance policies sold through its Web site.

The authors focused on four types of regulations: (1) mandated health benefits, which require insur­ers to cover particular treatments or particular ser­vices; (2) "any willing provider" laws, which restrict insurers' ability to exclude hospitals and doctors from their networks; (3) community rating laws, which require insurers to limit premium dif­ferences across individuals; and (4) guaranteed issue laws, which require insurers to sell insurance to all potential customers regardless of health or pre-existing conditions.

Overall, the authors found that regulations have a mixed impact on health insurance premiums.

However, the authors argue that they are limited by a small sample size.

The economic impact of state-level health insur­ance regulations has generally received little ana­lytic attention from both the academy and the broader health policy community.

However, a more detailed analysis of this topic might provide insights into how to lower insurance costs and provide bet­ter health care coverage for more Americans.

This is starting to change, and three studies issued in 2005 have examined the issue.

In January 2005, Mark Showalter, William Con­gdon, and Amanda Kowalski published a working paper entitled "State Health Insurance Regulation and the Price of High-Deductible Policies."[4] The authors used two separate datasets in their analysis.

The authors estimated that eliminating all of these regulations could save individuals up to ,000 per year in insurance premiums.

A second, unpublished study was released by Tracey La Pierre and Chris Conover of the Center for Health Policy, Law and Management in the Terry Sanford Institute of Public Policy at Duke University.[5] They obtained data on health insur­ance premiums from the Community Tracking Sur­veys in 1996-1997, 1998-1999, and 2000-2001 and used the data to examine a wider range of health insurance regulations.

Other Regulatory Studies Relatively little academic and policy literature examines the impact of state-level health insurance regulations on health insurance premiums.

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