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From the late 17th century and during the 18th century, popular resistance to public execution and torture became more widespread both in Europe and in the United States.

In these facilities, inmates were given jobs, and through prison labor they were taught how to work for a living.

By the end of the 17th century, houses of correction were absorbed into local prison facilities under the control of the local justice of the peace.

Imprisonment as a penalty was used initially for those who could not afford to pay their fines.

Eventually, since impoverished Athenians could not pay their fines, leading to indefinite periods of imprisonment, time limits were set instead.

The use of prisons can be traced back to the rise of the state as a form of social organization.

Corresponding with the advent of the state was the development of written language, which enabled the creation of formalized legal codes as official guidelines for society.

is a facility in which inmates are forcibly confined and denied a variety of freedoms under the authority of the state.

Prisons are most commonly used within a criminal justice system: people charged with crimes may be imprisoned until they are brought to trial; those pleading or being found guilty of crimes at trial may be sentenced to a specified period of imprisonment.

The best known of these early legal codes is the Code of Hammurabi, written in Babylon around 1750 BC.

The penalties for violations of the laws in Hammurabi's Code were almost exclusively centered on the concept of lex talionis ("the law of retaliation"), whereby people were punished as a form of vengeance, often by the victims themselves.

During the Middle Ages in Europe, castles, fortresses, and the basements of public buildings were often used as makeshift prisons.

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